Book Chapter

Model-based Segmentation and Fusion of 3D Computed Tomography and 3D Ultrasound of the Eye for Radiotherapy Planning

Computed Tomography (CT) represents the standard imaging modality for tumor volume delineation for radiotherapy treatment planning of retinoblastoma despite some inherent limitations. CT scan is very useful in providing information on physical density for dose calculation and morphological volumetric information but presents a low sensitivity in assessing the tumor viability. On the other hand, 3D ultrasound (US) allows a highly accurate definition of the tumor volume thanks to its high spatial resolution but it is not currently integrated in the treatment planning but used only for diagnosis and follow-up. Our ultimate goal is an automatic segmentation of gross tumor volume (GTV) in the 3D US, the segmentation of the organs at risk (OAR) in the CT and the registration of both modalities. In this chapter, we present some preliminary results in this direction. We present 3D active contour-based segmentation of the eye ball and the lens in CT images; the presented approach incorporates the prior knowledge of the anatomy by using a 3D geometrical eye model. The automated segmentation results are validated by comparing with manual segmentation. Then, we present two approaches for the fusion of 3D CT and US images: (i) landmark-based transformation, and (ii) object-based transformation that makes use of eye ball contour information on CT and US images.


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