Complete genome sequence of the entomopathogenic and metabolically versatile soil bacterium Pseudomonas entomophila
Pseudomonas entomophila is an entomopathogenic bacterium that, upon ingestion, kills Drosophila melanogaster as well as insects from different orders. The complete sequence of the 5.9-Mb genome was determined and compared to the sequenced genomes of four Pseudomonas species. P. entomophila possesses most of the catabolic genes of the closely related strain P. putida KT2440, revealing its metabolically versatile properties and its soil lifestyle. Several features that probably contribute to its entomopathogenic properties were disclosed. Unexpectedly for an animal pathogen, P. entomophila is devoid of a type III secretion system and associated toxins but rather relies on a number of potential virulence factors such as insecticidal toxins, proteases, putative hemolysins, hydrogen cyanide and novel secondary metabolites to infect and kill insects. Genome-wide random mutagenesis revealed the major role of the two-component system GacS/GacA that regulates most of the potential virulence factors identified.