Towards Natural Non-Invasive Hand Neuroprostheses for Daily Living
In this paper we show how healthy subjects can operate a non-invasive asynchronous BCI for controlling a FES neuroprosthesis and manipulate objects to carry out daily tasks in ecological conditions. Both, experienced and novel subjects proved to be able to deliver mental commands with high accuracy and speed. Our neuroprosthetic approach relies on a natural interaction paradigm, where subjects delivers congruent MI commands (i.e., they imagining a movement of the same hand they control through FES). Furthermore, we have tested our approach in a common daily task such as handwriting, which requires the user to split his/her attention to multitask between BCI control, reaching, and the primary handwriting task itself. Interestingly, the very low number of erroneous trials illustrates how during the experiments subjects were able to deliver commands just when they intended to do so. Similarly, the subjects could perform actions while delivering, or preparing to deliver, mental commands.