High spatial and temporal resolution water temperature measurements, using DTS, allow to model and to control stream temperature evolution in the Tambarga’s basin (Burkina Faso). A wireless sensor network recorded solar radiation, air temperature, air humidity, wind speed (among others) on different sites on Tambarga’s basin (B.F.) in 2009. These data are compiled and used as inputs to force the model and to assess simulated river temperatures in the basin. Local parameters as shade coefficient, stream bed heat losses as well as land coverage coefficient are estimated from on field knowledge. Purpose but also need for this study, stream discharge estimation in the Tambarga’s river is paramount. Discharges are formed by subsurface flow, groundwater flow and runoff during rain events. Assuming that all three water discharge components have a different thermal signature leads to imagine that they can be identified with the DTS optical fiber, once they reach the main stream. The inflow emplacements are referred to as springs in this study. Finally, although this study leads to significant results, the last sections propose the installation of some more measuring instruments for controlling and improving the model accuracy.