Journal article

Segmentation of Foot and Ankle Complex based on Kinematic Criteria

Although various foot models were proposed for kinematics assessment using skin makers, no objective justification exists for the foot segmentations. This study proposed objective kinematic criteria to define which foot joints are relevant (dominant) in skin markers assessments. Among the studied joints, shank-hindfoot, hindfoot-midfoot and medial-lateral forefoot joints were found to have larger mobility than flexibility of their neighbour bonesets. The amplitude and pattern consistency of these joint angles confirmed their dominancy. Nevertheless, the consistency of the medial-lateral forefoot joint amplitude was lower. These three joints also showed acceptable sensibility to experimental errors which supported their dominancy. This study concluded that to be reliable for assessments using skin markers, the foot and ankle complex could be divided into shank, hindfoot, medial forefoot, lateral forefoot and toes. Kinematics of foot models with more segments must be more cautiously used.


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