Dynamics of erosion and deposition in tokamaks
In recent years, a general qualitative understanding has been reached about the major pathways of material migration in divertor tokamaks. Main chamber wall components have been identified as the major source of material erosion. The eroded material is transported by scrape-off layer flows, in the case of the ion B x del B drift pointing towards the X-point, predominately towards the inner divertor leg, where it is deposited in the form of amorphous layers. On JET, where carbon is the main plasma-facing material, it has been found that the presence of deposited carbon rich layers determines the dynamic characteristics of further re-distribution of carbon, in particular towards remote areas. The transport from the strike point to the deposition location is mainly line-of-sight. The amount of eroded carbon depends on the surface type, with lower rates for the bare CFC and higher rates for deposited layers. The erosion rates in the inner divertor increase non-linearly with increasing ELM energies. (C) 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.