Infoscience

Thesis

Sensorless Position Control of Piezoelectric Ultrasonic Motors: a Mechatronic Design Approach

This dissertation considers mechatronic systems driven by piezoelectric ultrasonic motors (PUM). The focus is set on optimal system design and sensorless position control. Mechatronic industry faces the challenge to deliver ever more efficient and reliable products while being confronted to increasingly short time to market demands and economic constraints driven by competition. Although optimal design strategies are applied to master this challenge, they do not entirely respond to the given circumstances, as often only local criteria are optimised. In order to obtain a globally optimal solution, the many subfunctions of a mechatronic system and their models must be interrelated and evaluated concurrently from the very beginning of the design process. In this context PUM have been used increasingly during the last decade for various positioning applications in the field of mechatronic systems, laboratory equipment, and consumer electronics where their performances are superior to conventional electromechanical drive systems based on DC or BLDC motors. The position of the mobile component must be controlled. In some cases open-loop control is a solution, but more often than not sensors are used as feedback device in closed-loop control. Sensors are expensive, large in size and add fragile hardware to the device that compromises its reliability. Thus, not only the superior performance is not fully exploited but also the economical feasibility of the PUM drive system is jeopardised. Replacing sensors by advanced control techniques is an approach to these problems that is well established in the field of BLDC motors. Those sensorless control strategies are not directly transferrable, because of the fundamentally different working principles of PUM. Hence, the research of sensorless closed-loop position control techniques applicable to PUM and their validation with digitally controlled functional models is the very topic of this thesis. We propose a dedicated design methodology to this statement of the problem. A core model of the mechatronic system is conceived as general and simple as possible. It then develops for the different interrelated views reflecting the mechanical, electromechanical, drive electronic, sensorial and digital control functions of the global system. Each one becoming more specific and detailed in this process, the different views still enable mutual constraint adjustments and the dynamic integration of results from the other views during the design process. Starting with the stator of the PUM, a view describes the mechanical displacement. An electric equivalent model is written such that power input from the drive electronics is related to the mechanical energy transmitted to the mechanics. The resulting differential equations are solved by the finite element method (FEM). Position feedback configurations in the mobile part of the PUM are modelled analytically in order to be implemented in digital control and their electrical implications are updated to the stator model. In this way, sensors do not necessarily materialise physically any more, but are distributed among the mechanical configuration, the drive electronics and the digital controller. With respect to the sensor data, the controller is not simply receiving finalised data on the measured system parameter, but rather implements the sensor itself in software. Finally, the position detection performance obtained with the aforementioned design methodology was evaluated with the example of mechatronic locking devices actuated by custom-made as well as OEM motors. Functional models of motors, electronics and digital controllers were used to identify the limits of the proposed methods, and suggestions for further research were deduced. These results contribute to the development of robust sensorless position controllers for PUM.

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