A gene encoding a protein kinase was identified by homology-based PCR amplification in Encephalitozoon intestinalis, a microsporidian parasite pathogenic to humans, and its orthologue has been identified by database mining in the genome of the related species E. cuniculi, whose sequence has been recently published. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the proteins encoded by these genes are homologues of the cAMP-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunits (PKAc). Southern blot analysis indicated that the EiPKAc gene is present in two copies in the E. intestinalis genome, whereas the E. cuniculi orthologue (EcPKAc) is a single copy gene. RT-PCR data showed that the EiPKAc gene is expressed in at least one of the intracellular stages during infection of the mammalian host cell by E. intestinalis.