High-resolution angle-resolved photoemission data show that a metal-insulator Mott transition occurs at the surface of the quasi-two-dimensional compound 1T-TaSe2. The transition is driven by the narrowing of the Ta 5d band induced by a temperature-dependent modulation of the atomic positions. A dynamical mean-field theory calculation of the spectral function of the half-filled Hubbard model captures the main qualitative feature of the data, namely, the rapid transfer of spectral weight from the observed quasiparticle peak at the Fermi surface to the Hubbard bands, as the correlation gap opens up.