CuIn(1-x)Ga(x)Se2 photovoltaic devices for tandem solar cell application
CuIn1-xGaxSe2 (CIGS) solar cells show a good spectral response in a wide range of the solar spectrum and the bandgap of CIGS can be adjusted from 1.0 eV to 1.7 eV by increasing the gallium-to-indium ratio of the absorber. While the bandgaps of Ga-rich CIGS or CGS devices make them suitable for top or intermediate cells, the In rich CIGS or CIS devices are well suited to be used as bottom cells in tandem solar cells. The photocurrent can be adapted to the desired value for current matching in tandem cells by changing the composition of CIGS which influences the absorption characteristics. Therefore, CIGS layers with different [Ga]/[In+Ga] ratios were grown on Mo and ZnO:Al coated glass substrates. The grain size, composition of the layers, and morphology strongly depend on the Ga content. Layers with Ga rich composition exhibit smaller grain size and poor photovoltaic performance. The current densities of CIGS solar cells on ZnO:Al/glass varied from 29 mA cm(-2) to 13 mA cm(-2) depending on the Ga content, and 13.5% efficient cells were achieved using a low temperature process (450 degrees C). However, Ga-rich solar cells exhibit lower transmission than dye sensitized solar cells (DSC). Prospects of tandem solar cells combining a DSC with CIGS are presented. (C) 2008 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.