Lab-on-a-chip for multiplexed biosensing of residual antibiotics in milk
A multiplexed immunoassay-based antibiotic sensing device integrated in a lab-on-a-chip format is described. The approach is multidisciplinary and involves the convergent development of a multi-antibiotic competitive immunoassay based on sensitive wavelength interrogated optical sensor (WIOS) technology and a polymer-based self-contained microfluidic cartridge. Immunoassay solutions are pressure-driven through external and concerted actuation of a single syringe pump and multiposition valve. Moreover, the use of a novel photosensitive material in a one step fabrication process allowed the rapid fabrication of microfluidic components and interconnection port simultaneously. Pre-filled microfluidic cartridges were used as binary response rapid tests for the simultaneous detection of three antibiotic families – sulfonamides, fluoroquinolones and tetracyclines – in raw milk. For test interpretation, any signal lower than the threshold value obtained for the corresponding Maximum Residue Limit (MRL) concentration (100 µg L-1) was considered negative for a given antibiotic. The reliability of the multiplexed detection system was assessed by way of a validation test carried out on a series of six blind milk samples. A test accuracy of 95% was calculated from this experiment. The whole immunoassay procedure is fast (less than 10 minutes) and easy to handle (automated actuation).