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The exploration of the human connectome, a term denoting the global structural connectivity of the brain, is accessible to MRI at millimeter and centimeter scales. In this paper, we propose a methodology to map the connectome by constructing normalized whole-brain structural connection matrices derived from diffusion spectrum MRI tractography. Using a template-based approach, we propose a robust method that allows a) the selection of identical cortical regions of interest in different subjects with identification of the associated fiber tracts, b) a straightforward construction and interpretation of anatomically organized whole-brain connection matrices, and c) a statistical inter-subject comparison of brain connectivity.