This review gives an overview of developments in the field of microchip analysis for clinical diagnostic and forensic applications. The approach chosen to review the literature is different from that in most microchip reviews to date, in that the information is presented in terms of analytes tested rather than microchip method. Analyte categories for which examples are presented include (i) drugs (quality control, seizures) and explosives residues, (ii) drugs and endogenous small molecules and ions in biofluids, (iii) proteins and peptides, and (iv) analysis of nucleic acids and oligonucleotides. Few cases of microchip analysis of physiological samples or other "real-world" matrices were found. However, many of the examples presented have potential application for these samples, especially with ongoing parallel developments involving integration of sample pretreatment onto chips and the use of fluid propulsion mechanisms other than electrokinetic pumping.