Microscopic view of epitaxial metal growth: nucleation and aggregation
Thin films are often grown away from thermodynamic equilibrium and their morphology becomes determined by kinetics. The final structure of the epitaxial film is decided in the very early stage of submonolayer nucleation and island growth. Recent experiments with scanning tunneling microscopy opened up an unprecedented view of this early stage of epitaxial growth. Variable sample temperatures enabled quantification of the rates of the most important atomic diffusion events and tracing back their interplay yielding the final submonolayer morphology. The present understanding of nucleation and aggregation in light of these new experimental results is reviewed for the case of metals. Examples are given how the growth kinetics can be employed to create well-defined island morphologies and island arrays in a self-organization process. (C) 1998 Elsevier Science B.V.