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Neurodegenerative diseases are more and more prevalent in our aging societies. A rapid overview of the etiology of many neurodegenerative diseases like Alzheimer, Parkinson, Huntington disease and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis suggests a tight link with mitochondrial dysfunction. Since it has been recently demonstrated that activation of the SIRT1/PGC-1 pathway, in a metabolic context promotes mitochondrial function, we performed a detailed literature review on the implication of this pathway in neurodegeneration. Interestingly, transgenic mice with impaired PGC-1 expression have neurodegenerative lesions and show behavioural abnormalities. As evidenced from independent investigations, enhanced SIRT1 activity has been demonstrated to protect against axonal degeneration and to decrease the accumulation of amyloid β peptides, the hallmark of Alzheimer disease, in cultured murine embryonic neurons. In addition, several studies suggest that resveratrol, a specific activator of SIRT1, could have protective effects in animal models of neurodegenerative diseases. Taken together, these results strongly suggest that the modulation of the SIRT1/PGC-1 pathway, which has not been well documented in the central nervous system, could become the cornerstone for new therapeutical approaches to combat neurodegeneration