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Allergic asthma is characterized by airway hyperresponsiveness, eosinophilia, and mucus accumulation and is associated with increased IgE concentrations. We demonstrate here that peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs), PPAR-alpha and PPAR-gamma, which have been shown recently to be involved in the regulation of various cell types within the immune system, decrease antigen-induced airway hyperresponsiveness, lung inflammation, eosinophilia, cytokine production, and GATA-3 expression as well as serum levels of antigen-specific IgE in a murine model of human asthma. In addition, we demonstrate that PPAR-alpha and -gamma are expressed in eosinophils and their activation inhibits in vitro chemotaxis and antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity. Thus, PPAR-alpha and -gamma (co)agonists might be of therapeutic interest for the regulation of allergic or inflammatory reactions by targeting both regulatory and effector cells involved in the immune response.