The scavenger receptor class B type I (SR-BI), which mediates selective cellular cholesterol uptake from high-density lipoproteins (HDLs), plays a key role in reverse cholesterol transport. The orphan nuclear receptor liver receptor homolog 1 (LRH-1) and SR-BI are co-expressed in liver and ovary, suggesting that LRH-1 might control the expression of SR-BI in these tissues. LRH-1 induces human and mouse SR-BI promoter activity by binding to an LRH-1 response element in the promoter. Retroviral expression of LRH-1 robustly induces SR-BI, an effect associated with histone H3 acetylation on the SR-BI promoter. The decrease in SR-BI mRNA levels in livers of LRH-1(+/-) animals provides in vivo evidence that LRH-1 regulates SR-BI expression. Our data demonstrate that SR-BI is an LRH-1 target gene and underscore the pivotal role of LRH-1 in reverse cholesterol transport.