Uptake of fatty acids into cells is a controlled process in part regulated by fatty acid transport proteins (FATPs), which facilitate the transport of fatty acids across the cell membrane. In this study the structure of the human FATP-1 (HGMW-approved symbol SLC27A1) cDNA and gene was determined, and the expression of its mRNA in human was characterized. Muscle and adipose tissue have the highest levels of FATP-1 mRNA, small intestine has intermediate levels, and FATP-1 mRNA is barely detectable in liver. The human FATP-1 gene has 12 exons and extends over more than 13 kb of genomic DNA. The FATP gene maps to chromosome 19p13.1 by fluorescence in situ hybridization, a region previously suggested to be implicated in the determination of small dense low-density lipoprotein (LDL). Knowledge of the gene structure and chromosomal localization will allow screening for FATP mutations in humans with metabolic disorders, whereas knowledge of its expression pattern and factors regulating its expression could be of importance in understanding its biology.