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Selective cyclo-oxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitors are nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs used in the management of inflammatory diseases. We demonstrate here that inhibition of the COX-2 enzyme impairs adipocyte differentiation. The inhibition of adipogenesis occurs in the early clonal expansion phase. In particular, COX-2 inhibition limits cell cycle reentry required before terminal adipocyte differentiation. This inhibition of adipogenesis is independent of the production of the peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma ligand prostaglandin J2, but dependent on the production of proliferative prostaglandins, such as prostaglandin E2. Modulation of the activity of the COX-2 enzyme via COX-2 selective inhibitors might open up new perspectives in the control of obesity and related metabolic diseases.