Ultrafast electronic-vibrational relaxation upon excitation of the singlet charge-transfer b1A' state of [Re(L)(CO)3(bpy)]n (L = Cl, Br, I, n = 0; L = 4-Et-pyridine, n = 1+) in acetonitrile was investigated using the femtosecond fluorescence up-conversion technique with polychromatic detection. In addn., energies, characters, and mol. structures of the emitting states were calcd. by TD-DFT. The luminescence is characterized by a broad fluorescence band at very short times, and evolves to the steady-state phosphorescence spectrum from the a3A" state at longer times. The anal. of the data allows us to identify three spectral components. The first two are characterized by decay times t1 = 85-150 fs and t2 = 340-1200 fs, depending on L, and are identified as fluorescence from the initially excited singlet state and phosphorescence from a higher triplet state (b3A"), resp. The third component corresponds to the long-lived phosphorescence from the lowest a3A" state. In addn., it is found that the fluorescence decay time (t1) corresponds to the intersystem crossing (ISC) time to the two emissive triplet states. t2 corresponds to internal conversion among triplet states. DFT results show that ISC involves electron exchange in orthogonal, largely Re-localized, MOs, whereby the total electron momentum is conserved. Surprisingly, the measured ISC rates scale inversely with the spin-orbit coupling const. of the ligand L, but the authors find a clear correlation between the ISC times and the vibrational periods of the Re-L mode, suggesting that the latter may mediate the ISC in a strongly nonadiabatic regime.