The positioning and dynamics of origins of replication in the budding yeast nucleus.
We have analyzed the subnuclear position of early- and late-firing origins of DNA replication in intact yeast cells using fluorescence in situ hybridization and green fluorescent protein (GFP)-tagged chromosomal domains. In both cases, origin position was determined with respect to the nuclear envelope, as identified by nuclear pore staining or a NUP49-GFP fusion protein. We find that in G1 phase nontelomeric late-firing origins are enriched in a zone immediately adjacent to the nuclear envelope, although this localization does not necessarily persist in S phase. In contrast, early firing origins are randomly localized within the nucleus throughout the cell cycle. If a late-firing telomere-proximal origin is excised from its chromosomal context in G1 phase, it remains late-firing but moves rapidly away from the telomere with which it was associated, suggesting that the positioning of yeast chromosomal domains is highly dynamic. This is confirmed by time-lapse microscopy of GFP-tagged origins in vivo. We propose that sequences flanking late-firing origins help target them to the periphery of the G1-phase nucleus, where a modified chromatin structure can be established. The modified chromatin structure, which would in turn retard origin firing, is both autonomous and mobile within the nucleus.
Record created on 2009-02-19, modified on 2016-08-08