Several pathogens - bacteria, viruses and parasites - must enter mammalian cells for survival, replication and immune-system evasion. These pathogens generally make use of existing cellular pathways that are designed for nutrient uptake, receptor downregulation and signalling. Because most of these pathways end in lysosomes, an organelle that is capable of killing microorganisms, pathogens have developed remarkable means to avoid interactions with this lytic organelle