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Abstract

Electrophorescing blopolymers across nanopores modulates the ionic current through the pore, revealing the polymer's diameter, length, and conformation. The rapidity of polymer translocation (similar to 30 000 bp/ms) in this geometry greatly limits the information that can be obtained for each base. Here we show that the translocation speed of lambda-DNA through artificial nanopores can be reduced using. optical tweezers. DNAs coupled to optically trapped beads were presented to nanopores. DNAs initially placed up to several micrometers from the pore could be captured. Subsequently, the optical tweezers reduced translocation speeds to 150 bp/ms, about 200-fold slower than free DNA. Moreover, the optical tweezers allowed us to "floss" single polymers back and forth through the pore. The combination of controlled sample presentation, greatly slowed translocation speeds, and repeated electrophoresis of single DNAs removes several barriers to using artificial nanopores for sequencing, haplotyping, and characterization of protein-DNA interactions.

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