Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF), a potent neurotrophic factor with restorative effects in a variety of rodent and primate models of Parkinson's disease (PD), could be of therapeutic value to PD. In this study, we show that intraventricular chronic infusion of low doses of GDNF using encapsulated genetically engineered C2C12 cells can exert: (1) transient recovery of motor deficits (hypokinesia); (2) significant protection of intrinsic striatal dopaminergic function in the immediate vicinity of the site of implantation of the capsule in the caudate nucleus, and (3) significant-long-lasting-neurotrophic properties at the nigral level with an increase volume of the cell bodies. These observations confirm the potent neurorestorative potential of GDNF in PD and the safety/efficacy of the encapsulation technology as a means to deliver in situ this neurotrophic cytokine even using an intraventricular approach.