A Real-Time Simulator for Interventional Radiology
Interventional radiologists manipulate guidewires and catheters and steer stents through the patient’s vascular system under X-ray imaging for treatment of vascular diseases. The complexity of these procedures makes trainingmandatory in order to master hand-eye coordination, instrument manipulation and procedure protocols for each radiologist. In this paper we present a simulator for interventional radiology, which deploys a model of guidewire/catheter based on the Cosserat theory applied to one-dimensional structures. This model starts from the energetic formulation of the filament considering the Hook laws of continuum mechanics. The Lagrange formulations are used to describe the model deformation. This model takes (self-) collisions into account and it is revealed to be very efficient for interactive applications. The simulation environment allows to carry out the most common procedures: guidewire and catheter navigation, contrast dye injection to visualize the vessels, balloon angioplasty and stent placement. Moreover, heartbeat as well as breathing are also simulated visually.