Synthesis of calcium sensors for labelling fusion proteins-synthesis of modified prolines using aza naked sugar methodology

Synthesis of Modified Prolines using aza naked sugar methodology R and S-prolines are secondary, cyclic, pyrrolidine-based amino acids. Proline demonstrated excellent catalytic activity to promote enantio- and diatereoselective, intra- and intermolecular cross aldolizations. This efficient organocalyst have been applied to the synthesis of different carbohydrates. In order to enlarge this asymmetric process to aqueous conditions, 4-hydroxyproline derivatives have been developed for the catalysis of cross aldol reaction in water. In this work, with the aim to develop new catalysts based on proline, the reactivity of azanorbornene systems has been explored and the stereoselective transformation of these synthons has been applied to the synthesis of new proline-based aminoacids. The chemistry, previously developed by Vogel and coll. on "naked sugar" has been applied with success on the aza analogues. In summary we have developed a new route for the synthesis of 5-hydroxymethyl-4- hydroxyproline, in particular the synthesis of a new aminoacid, 5-epimer of (-)-Bulgecinine. We have successfully synthesized using an efficient pathway an advanced precursor of 5-hydroxymethyl-3-hydroxyproline. Synthesis of Calcium Sensors for Labelling Fusion Proteins The free cytosolic concentration of calcium plays a central note in signal transduction. The development of indicators of the calcium concentration in living cells can therefore contribute to the understanding of biological systems. Here we describe synthesis and fluorescence properties of a Fura-2FF-O6-Benzylguanine fluorescence sensor that can be used to sense local calcium concentrations in cells. These sensors can be covalently linked to engineered alkyl-guanine-DNA-alkyl-transferase (AGT) fusion proteins. The indicator ΚD is with 4.3 µM optimal to measure locally increased calcium concentrations. This lowered ΚD is achieved by fluorine substitution of the coordinating BAPTA group, while not compromising the calcium to magnesium selectivity. It reacts quickly with mutant alkyl-guanine-DNA-alkyl-transferase (AGT) and can therefore be used to measure calcium near a specific protein. Ultimately this compound can combine advantages of both genetically encoded calcium indicators by being targetable and synthetic calcium indicators of the most popular Fura-2 series. Figure 1. Chemical structure and fluorescence excitation spectra in vitro of non permeable Fura-2FF benzylguanine derivative.


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