Fluctuations and particle transport in the scrape-off layer of TCV plasmas have been investigated by probe measurements and direct comparison with two-dimensional interchange turbulence simulations at the outer midplane. The experiments demonstrate that with increasing line-averaged core plasma density, the radial particle density profile scale length becomes broader. The particle and radial flux density statistics in the far scrape-off layer exhibit a high degree of statistical similarity with respect to changes in the line-averaged density. The plasma flux onto the main chamber wall at the outer midplane scales linearly with the local particle density, suggesting that the particle flux here can be parameterized in terms of an effective convection velocity. Experimental probe measurements also provide evidence for significant parallel flows in the scrape-off layer caused by ballooning in the transport of particles and heat into the scrape-off layer. The magnitude of this flow estimated from pressure fluctuation statistics is found to compare favourably with the measured flow offset derived by averaging data obtained from flow profiles observed in matched forward and reversed field discharges. An interchange turbulence simulation has been performed for a single, relatively high density case, where comparison between code and experiment has been possible. Good agreement is found for almost all aspects of the experimental measurements, indicating that plasma fluctuations and transport in TCV scrape-off layer plasmas are dominated by radial motion of filamentary structures.