High-power gyrotron development at Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe for fusion applications
In the first part of this paper, the status of the 140-GHz continuously operated gyrotrons with an output power of I MW for the stellarator Wendelstein 7-X will be described. With the first series tube, an output power of 1000 kW has been achieved in short pulse operation (milliseconds) with an electron beam current of 40 A, and of 1150 kW at 50 A. With a pulse length of 3 min limited by the available high-voltage (HV) power supply, an output power of 920 kW at an electron beam current of about 40 A with an efficiency of 45% and a mode purity of 97.5% has been obtained. At a reduced beam current of 29 A, an output power of 570 kW was measured with a pulse length of 1893 s without significant increase in tube pressure. The energy content of this pulse is almost 1.1 GJ. For the next fusion plasma device, International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER), gyrotrons with a higher output power of about 2 MW are desirable. In short-pulse experiments, the feasibility of the fabrication of coaxial cavity gyrotrons with an output power up to 2-MW, continuous wave (CW), has been demonstrated, and the information necessary for a technical design has been obtained. The development of a long-pulse 2-MW coaxial cavity gyrotron started within a European cooperation. In parallel to the design and fabrication of an industrial prototype gyrotron, a short-pulse preprototype gyrotron has been operated to verify the design of critical components. An output power of 1.2 MW with an efficiency of 20% has been achieved. The development of frequency tunable gyrotrons operating in the range from 105 to 140 GHz for stabilization of current driven plasma instabilities in fusion plasma devices (neoclassical tearing modes) is another task in the development of gyrotrons at the Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe.