Safety factor profile requirements for electron ITB formation in TCV
On the Tokamak a Configuration Variable (TCV), electron internal transport barriers (eITBs) can be formed during a gradual evolution from a centrally peaked to a hollow current profile while all external actuators are held constant. The formation occurs rapidly (<tau(e)E) and locally and, according to ASTRA modelling, is consistent with the appearance of a local minimum in the safety factor (q) profile. The eITB is sustained by non-inductively driven currents (including the off-axis bootstrap current) for many current redistribution times while the current in the tokamak transformer is held constant. The maximum duration is limited by the pulse length of the gyrotrons. The transformer coil can be used as a counter (or co-) current source with negligible accompanying input power. In established eITBs the performance can be enhanced (degraded) by altering solely the central current or q-profile. New experiments show that the same stationary eITB performance can be reached starting from discharges with centrally peaked current. A fine scan in surface voltage shows a smooth increase in performance and no sudden improvement with voltage despite the fact that q(min) must pass through several low-order rational values. The appearance, in some cases, of magnetic islands simultaneously with that of the eITB provides a new constraint on the simulation of the q-profiles.