ECH physics and new operational regimes on TCV
The physics of tokamak plasmas, in which electrons are heated by electron cyclotron heating (ECH) and whose current is driven by electron cyclotron current drive (ECCD), is investigated in this paper together with applications on tokamak A configuration variable (TCV) using modifications of the pressure and current profiles to improve the operational regimes. In order to explain the experimentally determined current drive efficiency and hard x-ray and electron cyclotron emission measurements, it is shown that quasi-linear effects and radial transport of the suprathermal electrons are necessary. Plasmas with fully non-inductively driven currents were obtained with 0.9 MW of off-axis ECCD and 0.45 MW of on-axis counter ECCD. The combination of the driven current and the bootstrap current, accounting for 50% of the total current and peaking off-axis, yields a reversed safety factor profile and a wide and stable electron internal transport barrier. This barrier leads to an enhancement in the energy confinement by a factor of 4.5. ECH is also used to broaden the current profile of high elongation, low normalized-current plasmas whose vertical position would otherwise be uncontrollable on TCV, but whose MHD stability properties should allow high beta values. An elongation of 2.47 at a normalized-current of 1.05 MA mT(-) 1 is obtained with off-axis ECH absorbed at an optimized normalized radius between 0.55 and 0.7. Finally, third harmonic ECH is tested in various scenarios, all using vertical beam launching. In particular, high density Ohmic target and preheating with second harmonic ECH are presented. The fraction of third harmonic power absorbed reaches 65% and 85%, respectively.