Integration of various stacking processes in carrier ampholyte-based capillary electrophoresis
Field-enhanced sample stacking, field-enhanced sample injection as well as electrokinetic supercharging have been successfully integrated in carrier ampholyte-based capillary electrophoresis. Through the analysis of different test sample mixtures, it has been shown that the carrier ampholyte-based background electrolytes, in spite of their very low conductivity, allow efficient online preconcentration of analytes by fieldamplified techniques. Sensitivity enhancement factors of the same magnitude as those usually encountered with classical conductive background electrolytes have been obtained in such carrier ampholyte-based buffers. Depending on the online preconcentration method that has been integrated, sensitivity enhancement factors between 50 and several thousands have been reached.