A facile method for the fabrication of dendritic gold nanoparticles (NPs) by use of an ionic polymer template has been developed. In situ generation of an imidazolium-based (cationic) polymer, poly[1-methyl-3-(4-vinylbenzyl)imidazolium], with AuCl4- counteranions is achieved by addn. of HAuCl4 into a soln. contg. poly[1-methyl-3-(4-vinylbenzyl)imidazolium chloride]. Subsequent redn. with NaBH4 in water or in a mixt. of ethanol and water affords various NPs depending on the conditions, including large dendritic gold NPs that have been analyzed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), and selected area electron diffraction (SAED). The structures of the dendritic gold NPs were found to depend on the ethanol concn. SEM (SEM) images of the ionic polymer reveal that the solvent used to deposit the polymer strongly influences its structure and may be correlated to the structure of the resulting NPs.