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Protein oxidation mechanisms result in a wide array of modifications, from backbone cleavage or protein crosslinking to more subtle modifications such as side chain oxidations. Protein oxidation occurs as part of normal regulatory processes, as a defence mechanism against oxidative stress, or as a deleterious processes when antioxidant defences are overcome. Because blood is continually exposed to reactive oxygen and nitrogen species, blood proteomics should inherently adopt redox proteomic strategies. In this review, we recall the biochemical basis of protein oxidation, review the proteomic methodologies applied to analyse redox modifications, and highlight some physiological and in vitro responses to oxidative stress of various blood components.