Human muscular fetal cells: a potential cell source for muscular therapies
Myoblast transfer therapy has been extensively studied for a wide range of clinical applications, such as tissue engineering for muscular loss, cardiac surgery or Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy treatment. However, this approach has been hindered by numerous limitations, including early myoblast death after injection and speciﬁc immune response after transplantation with allogenic cells. Different cell sources have been analyzed to overcome some of these limitations. The object of our study was to investigate the growth potential, characterization and integration in vivo of human primary fetal skeletal muscle cells. These data together show the potential for the creation of a cell bank to be used as a cell source for muscle cell therapy and tissue engineering. For this purpose, we developed primary muscular cell cultures from fetus and from donors of 13 and 30 years old. We show that fetal myogenic cells can be successfully isolated and expanded in vitro from human fetal muscle biopsies, and that fetal cells have higher growth capacities when compared to young and adult cells. We conﬁrm lineage speciﬁcity by comparing fetal muscle cells to fetal skin and bone cells in vitro by immunohistochemistry with desmin and 5.1H11 antibodies. For the feasibility of the cell bank, we ensured that fetal muscle cells retained intrinsic characteristics after 5 years cryopreservation. Finally, human fetal muscle cells marked with PKH26 were injected in normal C57BL/6 mice and were found to be present up to 4 days. In conclusion we estimate that a human fetal skeletal muscle cell bank can be created for potential muscle cell therapy and tissue engineering.