Prolactin is an ancient hormone, with different functions in many species. The binding of prolactin to its receptor, a member of the cytokine receptor superfamily, results in the activation of different intracellular signaling pathways, such as JAK2/STAT5, MAP kinase, and PI3K/AKT. How prolactin elicits so many different biological responses remains unclear. Recently, microarray technology has been applied to identify prolactin target genes in different systems. Here, we attempt to summarize and compare the available data. Our comparison of the genes reported to be transcriptionally regulated by prolactin indicates that there are few genes in common between the different tissues. Among the organs studied, mammary and prostate glands displayed the largest number of overlaps in putative prolactin target genes. Some of the candidates have been implicated in tumorigenesis. The relevance and validation of microarray data, as well as comparison of the results obtained by different groups, will be discussed.