Neutralizing antibodies are necessary and sufficient for protection against infection with vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV). The in vitro neutralization capacities and in vivo protective capacities of a panel of immunoglobulin G monoclonal antibodies to the glycoprotein of VSV were evaluated. In vitro, neutralizing activity correlated with avidity and with neutralization rate constant, a measure of on-rate. However, in vivo, protection was independent of immunoglobulin subclass, avidity, neutralization rate constant, and in vitro neutralizing activity; above a minimal avidity threshold, protection depended simply on a minimum serum concentration. These two biologically defined thresholds of antibody specificity offer hope for the development of adoptive therapy with neutralizing antibodies.