The optical nonlinearity of a GaAs/AlAs periodic layered structure was experimentally investigated for the first time. The shift of the reflectivity peak with increasing intensity was observed. A reflectivity contrast of about 10:1 was obtained by varying the incident intensity. Hysteresis loops due to the response delay of both the electronic and the thermal nonlinearity were observed. All-optical logic operations were also demonstrated. A further improvement of the structure may lead to a new type of optical bistable device.