The prognosis of superficial bladder cancer in terms of recurrence and disease progression is related to bladder tumor multiplicity and the presence of concomitant "plane" tumors such as high-grade dysplasia and carcinoma in situ. This study in 33 patients aimed to demonstrate the role of fluorescence cystoscopy in transurethral resection of superficial bladder cancer. The method is based on the detection of protoporphyrin-IX-induced fluorescence in urothelial cancer cells by topical administration of 5-aminolevulinic acid. The sensitivity and the specificity of this procedure on apparently normal mucosa in superficial bladder cancer are estimated to be 82.9% and 81.3%, respectively. Thus, fluorescence cytoscopy is a simple and reliable method for mapping the bladder mucosa, especially in the case of multifocal bladder disease, and it facilitates the screening of occult dysplasia.