Large-scale transient expression from mammalian cells is a new technology. Breakthroughs have been achieved for non-viral delivery methods: transfections can now be done at the 1-10 L scale with mammalian cells grown in suspension. Production of 1-20 mg/L of recombinant protein have been obtained in stirred bioreactors. Modified alphaviruses have provided a fast and efficient expression technology based on viral vectors.