Journal article

Human shoulder modeling including scapulo-thoracic constraint and joint sinus cones

In virtual human modeling, the shoulder is usually composed of clavicular, scapular and arm segments related by rotational joints. Although the model is improved, the realistic animation of the shoulder is hardly achieved. This is due to the fact that it is difficult to coordinate the simultaneous motion of the shoulder components in a consistent way. Also, the common use of independent one-degree of freedom (DOF) joint hierarchies does not properly render the 3-D accessibility space of real joints. On the basis of former biomechanical investigations, we propose an extended shoulder model including scapulo-thoracic constraint and joint sinus cones. As a demonstration, the model is applied, using inverse kinematics, to the animation of a 3-D anatomic muscled skeleton model

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