Journal article

Abstract muscle action procedures for human face animation

A new way of controlling human face animation and synchronizing speech is proposed. It is based on the concept of abstract muscle action procedure (AMA procedure). An AMA procedure is a specialized procedure which simulates the specific action of a face muscle. The paper describes the new technique and presents a methodology for animating the face of synthetic actors based on three levels: the AMA-procedure level, the expression level and the script level. The role of multiple tracks is also emphasized. Practical examples are also explained in detail, based on the film Rendez-vous a Montreal with the synthetic actors Marilyn Monroe and Humphrey Bogart


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