Convertisseur de fréquence indirect à rapport de tension fixe: interface entre turbo-alternateurs à haute vitesse et réseau électrique

Many electric power generators use gas turbines as power sources. Typically they are connected to the turbines through a mechanical gearbox in order to adapt their synchronous speed to the optimal rotation speed of the turbine, which is very often much higher than the synchronous speed. However, due to direct network connection, the generator speed cannot be variable : it is imposed by the network and constant. To overcome this problem, we propose to replace the mechanical gearbox by a flexible electronic solution which offers a high efficiency. Using this approach, the turbine is directly connected to the synchronous generator, which is connected to the grid through an indirect static frequency converter with an intermediary DC circuit. However, this type of converter is not common in this application because of very high switching losses due to the high frequency of the PWM technique normally used for its control. In this dissertation, a new control strategy is proposed for the three level Neutral Point Clamped converter, characterized by its high efficiency due to the use of square-wave operation mode. The main advantage of this mode is the quasi absence of switching losses. In this mode, only the frequency can be varied between the input and the output voltage, but their magnitudes are not freely controllable. A voltage magnitude adaptation can be done by the generator's excitation. The produced active and reactive power can be controlled by the generator excitation as well as both the angle shift between the generator and rectifier voltages and between the inverter and network voltages. The capacitive intermediary circuit brings the advantage of decoupling of harmonics between the generator and the network currents. A control method is also proposed to resolve some problems incurred by using square wave operation mode, in particular to reduce the harmonics distortion of the output inverter voltage and current. As second important contribution, this thesis proposes a new fast-ramping DC-component elimination strategy for AC currents. In comparison to the usually slow transient that characterizes a DC component free current transient, we achieve that much faster transients also without DC-component, simply by choosing a well defined transition period. Simulation and experimental results for different operating points and transitions between them highlight the capabilities of the proposed control strategy. These include the ability to operate with unity power factor and better current quality without continuous component and less harmonics.

Related material