Notch proteins regulate a broad spectrum of cell fate decisions and differentiation processes during fetal and postnatal development. Mammals have four Notch receptors that bind five different ligands. The function of Notch signaling during lymphopoiesis and T cell neoplasia, based on gain-of-function and conditional loss-of-function approaches for the Notch1 receptor, indicates Notch1 is essential in T cell lineage commitment. Recent studies have addressed the involvement of other Notch receptors and ligands as well as their downstream targets, demonstrating additional functions of Notch signaling in embryonic hematopoiesis, intrathymic T cell development, B cell development and peripheral T cell function.