000097228 001__ 97228
000097228 005__ 20181203020644.0
000097228 037__ $$aARTICLE
000097228 245__ $$aDifferential sensitivity of zinc finger transcription factors MTF-1, Sp1 and Krox-20 to CpG methylation of their binding sites
000097228 269__ $$a1996
000097228 260__ $$c1996
000097228 336__ $$aJournal Articles
000097228 500__ $$aInstitut fur Molekularbiologie II der Universitat Zurich, Switzerland.
000097228 500__ $$a0177-3593 (Print)
000097228 500__ $$aJournal Article
000097228 520__ $$aCytosine methylation at CpG sites is often negatively correlated with mammalian gene activity. Many transcription factors whose DNA binding site contains one or more CpG dinucleotides are no longer able to efficiently bind DNA when the site is methylated. A notable exception is the zinc finger factor Sp1 which binds DNA and activates transcription even when its binding site is methylated. Here we show that two other zinc finger factors, MTF-1 and Krox-20, can also bind to CpG methylated sites. MTF-1 regulates metallothionein gene transcription by binding to a number of metal responsive elements (MREs), and Krox-20 regulates Hox genes during hindbrain segmentation. However, a refined analysis of MTF-1/MRE binding shows that methylation is not tolerated at every binding site: the highest affinity site in the mouse metallothionein I gene, MREd, is unaffected by methylation, while two other MRE sites with CpGs at different positions are rendered partially or completely nonfunctional by methylation. Both methylation sensitive and insensitive factors/binding sites are likely to determine the developmental expression pattern of a gene.
000097228 6531_ $$aAnimals
000097228 6531_ $$aBase Sequence
000097228 6531_ $$aBinding Sites
000097228 6531_ $$aCpG Islands
000097228 6531_ $$aDNA-Binding Proteins/genetics
000097228 6531_ $$aEarly Growth Response Protein 2
000097228 6531_ $$aHumans
000097228 6531_ $$aMethylation
000097228 6531_ $$aMice
000097228 6531_ $$aMolecular Sequence Data
000097228 6531_ $$aPlasmids
000097228 6531_ $$aRNA/analysis
000097228 6531_ $$aSp1 Transcription Factor/genetics
000097228 6531_ $$aTranscription Factors/*genetics
000097228 6531_ $$aTranscription
000097228 6531_ $$aGenetic
000097228 6531_ $$aTransfection
000097228 6531_ $$aZinc Fingers/*genetics
000097228 700__ $$0240231$$aRadtke, F.$$g172749
000097228 700__ $$aHug, M.
000097228 700__ $$aGeorgiev, O.
000097228 700__ $$aMatsuo, K.
000097228 700__ $$aSchaffner, W.
000097228 773__ $$j377$$k1$$q47-56$$tBiol Chem Hoppe Seyler
000097228 8564_ $$uhttp://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=8929813$$zURL
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000097228 937__ $$aUPRAD-ARTICLE-1996-001
000097228 970__ $$a44/UPRAD
000097228 973__ $$aEPFL$$sPUBLISHED
000097228 980__ $$aARTICLE