It is shown that any point in the capacity region of a Gaussian multiple-access channel is achievable by single-user coding without requiring synchronization among users, provided that each user splits data and signal into two parts. Based on this result, a new multiple-access technique called rate-splitting multiple accessing (RSMA) is proposed. RSMA is a code-division multiple-access scheme for the M-user Gaussian multiple-access channel for which the effort of finding the codes for the M users, of encoding, and of decoding is that of at most 2M-1 independent point-to-point Gaussian channels. The effects of bursty sources, multipath fading, and inter-cell interference are discussed and directions for further research are indicated