The characteristics of synchrotron X-ray sources-quite different from those of conventional sources-are exploited by several new imaging techniques. These techniques expand the capabilities of conventional radiology and find interesting application in special cases. We briefly review the basic principle, applications and limitations of the most important of them: monochromatic mammography, two-wavelength digital subtraction angiography, phase-contrast/edge-enhancement imaging, diffraction-enhanced imaging and microtomography.