Journal article

Investigation of Pt/Ti Bilayer Metallization on Silicon for Ferroelectric Thin-Film Integration

The stabilities of Pt/Ti bilayer metallizations in an oxidizing atmosphere have been investigated with several thicknesses of interfacial Ti-bonding layers. Reactions in the Pt/Ti/SiO2/Si interface were examined as a function of various annealing conditions in the temperature range 200-800 degrees C by using Rutherford backscattering spectrometry, Auger electron spectroscopy, x-ray diffraction, and transmission electron microscopy. Thermal treatment in oxygen was found to cause rapid oxidation of the Ti layer, accompanied by the migration of Ti into the Pt film. Diffusion of oxygen through the Pt grain boundaries was mainly responsible for the adverse reactions at the interface and loss of mechanical integrity. Thin Ti (10 nm) layers resulted in the depletion of the interfacial bonding layer causing serious adhesion problems, whereas thicker Ti films (100 nm) caused the formation of TiO2-x in the Pt-grain boundaries, ultimately encapsulating the Pt surface with an insulating TiO2 layer. Improved stability and adhesion in the Pt/Ti bilayer metallization compatible with ferroelectric thin film processing, were achieved by incorporating well reacted thin TiO2 layers in situ, and depositing Pt films at a high temperature.

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