Current vaccine and immunotherapy technology faces ongoing challenges in both efficacy and practicality: many chronic diseases cannot yet be addressed by vaccination, and several vaccines that do function well require multiple injections, which is a substantial limitation in various parts of the world. A possible key to developing the next generation of vaccines is the ability to deliver antigen to dendritic cells (DCs) more specifically and induce the subsequent activation of T-cell immunity. However, antigen delivery to, and activation of, DCs is a complex problem, involving antigen transport to DC-rich areas, DC binding and antigen uptake, and antigen processing and presentation. Addressing these challenges requires novel and multidisciplinary approaches, for example, the application of biomaterials to immunotechnology. Here, we review the latest advances in biomaterial drug vehicles, such as polymer microparticles and nanoparticles, and liposomes, that are being used to target DCs in new strategies for vaccination.