A Cross Validation Study of Deep Brain Stimulation Targeting: From Experts to Atlas-Based, Segmentation-Based and Automatic Registration Algorithms
Validation of image registration algorithms is a difficult task and open-ended problem, usually application-dependent. In this paper we focus on deep brain stimulation (DBS) targeting for the treatment of movement disorders like Parkinson's disease and essential tremor. DBS involves implantation of an electrode deep inside the brain to electrically stimulate specific areas shutting down the disease's symptoms. The subthalamic nucleus (STN) has turned out to be the optimal target for this kind of surgery. Unfortunately, the STN is in general not clearly distinguishable in common medical imaging modalities. Usual techniques to infer its location are the use of anatomical atlases and visible surrounding landmarks. Surgeons have to adjust the electrode intra-operatively using electrophysiological recordings and macrostimulation tests. We constructed a ground truth derived from specific patients whose STNs are clearly visible on MR T2-weighted images. A patient is chosen as atlas both for the right and left sides. Then, by registering each patient with the atlas using different methods, several estimations of the STN location are obtained. Two studies are driven using our proposed validation scheme. First, a comparison between different atlas-based and non-rigid registration algorithms with a evaluation of their performance and usability to locate the STN automatically. Second, a study of which visible surrounding structures influence the STN location. The two studies are cross-validated between them and against expert's variability. Using this scheme we evaluated the expert's ability against the estimation error provided by the tested algorithms and we demonstrated that automatic STN targeting is possible and as accurate as the expert-driven techniques currently used. We also show which structures have to be taken into account to accurately estimate the STN location.