We elaborate in this thesis the numerical simulation of the fluid-structure interaction by the spectral element method. To this end we consider the Navier-Stokes equations for a viscous Newtonian incompressible fluid with an elastic solid the movement of which being described by the equations of the dynamics. The arbitrary Lagrangian Eulerian (ALE) formulation is introduced in the fluid governing equations to deal with the structure movement that is described in Lagrangian representation. The geometrical motion in each domain is built up by the mesh deformation. The space-time discretization of the full mathematical model rests upon the spectral element method. The solid is discretized in the space of polynomials of degree N, PN, while the fluid uses the PN - PN-2 approach. The efficiency of the ALE formulation is tested and validated through various applications. The full algorithm is based on a particular case of the staggered method. The simplified case of a solid immersed in a plane channel closes the thesis. It is then possible to draw the conclusions about the pros and cons of the proposed methodology.